Over the last decade, African economies recorded impressive economic growth rates. Economic growth remains vigorous and growth is forecasted to be 5.5% in 2013-2014 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Today, almost a third of the countries in the region are growing at 6% or more. African countries are now routinely among the fastest growing countries in the world (World Bank, 2013). Despite the remarkable economic performance, Africa has the world’s highest proportion of poor people and is off track to meeting key MDGs (ECA, 2014). It is also projected that the continent’s population will increase by approximately 800 million people by 2040, putting even more pressure on natural resources. The challenge confronting the region therefore is not only to maintain, but to translate the rapid economic growth into sustained and inclusive development, based on economic diversification that creates jobs, contributes to reduced inequality and poverty, and enhances access to basic services. This underlies the renewed calls by countries for a structural transformation that fosters sustained and inclusive economic growth (Lin, 2012). Rodrik(2013) notes that while East Asian countries grew rapidly and turned their farmers into manufacturing workers, diversified their economies, and exported a range of increasingly sophisticated goods, little of that is taking place in Africa today.
Affordable Housing (AH) is deemed affordable depending on family’s income and particular country’s housing status. AH can address all three dimensions of sustainability and it can influence 13 goals set in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) out of 17 goals directly and indirectly (United Nations, 2014). SDGs are designed as action-oriented goal in 2012 to realize 8 Millennium Development Goals set in the year back in 2000. It is envisaged that AH would result in financial and social inclusion of Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG). AH can offer them an opportunity to prosper economically and to enjoy basic urban services (Sen, 1998). It will address the Goal 11 of SDGs i.e. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
The global environmental and developmental agendas are now converging to address the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The past three decades
have seen innumerable attempts by governments and societies to intervene within social, economic and environmental dimensions to advance towards sustainable development. These include agreements such as the Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), RIO+20, and soon to be redefined as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
The SDGs build upon and supplement the MDGs creating what is being termed the post-2015 agenda. The emerging development agenda will greatly depend upon achieving environmentally
sustainability that reinforces the capacity to achieve associated social and economic dimensions.
It is anticipated that many countries will not be able to achieve their economic and social development goals without modifying practices, policies and investments to fully encompass environmental sustainability. Current agricultural practices cause many negative consequences on existing environmental resources. The emerging SDGs seek to increase efficiency in the use of land, water and agricultural inputs to better contribute to environmental goals while bridging the gap between current yields and the projected requirements to feed the world’s growing population.
In the classical triangular model of sustainability, the 3-Es (Economic development, Environmental protection, and social Equity), are given equal weight (Campbell 1996). However, in climate change research related to the built environment—the sector of the economy that contributes most to GHG emissions—social equity is rarely considered (Oden 2010). In the context of the built environment, equity is typically understood to mean the provision of housing for the poor by government, and is generally perceived as a social issue separate from the more technical problems of designing low-entropy buildings. In technical terms, equity is generally placed outside the system boundaries of sustainable building technology (Odum 1994 ), creating a large gap between the science and social policy of climate change in the built environment.
Being thus marginalized by building science, housing the poor is viewed by society as an unfortunate, yet necessary, public entitlement required to keep the poor from becoming
further burdens (either through unemployment, ill-health or political unrest) to the more affluent citizens who pay taxes (Mueller 2013). Research demonstrates this to be a shortsighted and ideological way to understand the opportunities inherent in social equity generally, and social housing in particular (Benner et al 2013).
Ocean and coastal resources are increasingly recognized as critical to sustaining life and livelihoods across the globe. Seafood provide 4.3 billion people with 15-20% of their protein intake, and fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, tourism, and other coastal industries provide income that supports an estimated 660 to 820 million people (HLPE 2014). Many nations are seeing the ‘Blue Economy’ – or economic benefits derived from the ocean – as a viable pathway to economic development and poverty alleviation. Incorporating explicit environmental goals into this strategy, such as ending overfishing and restoring ecosystem health, enables economic progress by aligning short- and long-term outcomes, and reflects how an improved environment can also improve the economy. The current draft of the UN Sustainable
Development Goals considers Oceans and Coasts an economically and environmentally important area that can help to improve ecosystem health and socio-economic well-being of coastal communities, particularly in developing countries (Goal #14).
Over the past 15 years, new marine management schemes have emerged, supported by science and integrating physical, biological, and human dimensions of ecosystems (Pew Oceans Commission 2003, FAO 2003). This promising framework is known as a marine ecosystem approach to management and is increasingly considered to be
essential for sustainable marine development (e.g. Ruckelshaus et al. 2008, Curtin and Prellezo 2010). Here we will review the science behind an emerging marine ecosystem management approach – the implementation of paired secure-access fisheries and conservation areas – that integrates economic, social, and environmental health, the three pillars of sustainable development.
La sustentabilidad y la resiliencia son consideradas condiciones básicas para alcanzar un funcionamiento armónico de los sistemas socio-ecológicos frente a condiciones internas cambiantes y a shocks externos. Sin embargo, no existe consenso en cuanto a la medición de ambos conceptos, como contribución al manejo de los sistemas productivos locales en esa dirección. Consecuente con estas ideas, en este trabajo se presenta una metodología para evaluar la sustentabilidad de sistemas productivos primarios, como resultado de dos años de investigación interdisciplinaria. La posibilidad de aplicar esta metodología descansa en un proceso colaborativo entre ciencia y política para mejorar la resiliencia y por lo tanto la sustentabilidad de los sistemas productivos locales.
At the international level, financial markets affect global investments of the different countries. Meanwhile, global investments impact the imports, exports, global employment, labour and demand for products and services worldwide. According to the International Monetary Fund Report (2011), the global market has been
vulnerable to the risks caused by certain financial, economic and political conditions. ‘Markets may lose patience and become disorderly if political developments derail momentum on fiscal consolidation and financial repair and reform’ (IMF, 2011).
On the other hand, the focus now of the individuals in the global society has been on how to have a higher financial capital. Income diversification is one of the strategies that can help to achieve this end (Kasem,2007). In particular, this would be through diversifying on-farm and off-farm activities especially in the rural
areas. In addition, according to the study of DeMurger (2010), the factors that affected the income diversification of households in northern China included education, migration, household position asset position and working resources, labor force and availability of local credit institutions. Moreover, income diversification also depends on one’s location, practices and the demand for labor. However, the farmers and indigenous peoples who are living in rural areas of
the different countries have been continually struggling to diversify their sources of income without losing their lands. These same situations were evident in the findings of Lopez and Sierra (2011) about the indigenous Jivaroan cultivation systems of Western Amazonia and in the study of Himley (2009) about conservation, interventions and struggles of rural Andean communities to assert territorial authority and to consolidate their livelihoods’ where social capital also plays an important role (Himley, 2009).
La résilience apparait comme un concept innovant de développement, dans le sillage des vulnérabilités dimensionnelles (environnementale, économique, sociale) et la lutte contre la pauvreté et la faim. Sa résonance est particulière dans le contexte actuel de mondialisation, où les chocs liés à la brutalité des crises financières et aux catastrophes naturelles, ne laissent plus indifférent. Le dernier rapport sur le développement humain (PNUD, 2014) questionne la pérennisation du progrès humain en lien avec la réduction des vulnérabilités et le renforcement de la résilience. Les capabilités (Sen, 1992, 1999) constituant aussi une réponse aux vulnérabilités, comment s’articulent-elles à la résilience, et selon quelle stratégie de politiques publiques pour un développement humainement durable?
Policy makers and decision makers in the world today are facing critical and contradictory challenge to ensure development for all within the capacity of the environment and natural resource base. The “business as usual” development models are clearly showing incapability to face the challenges of the present systems. The future pathways to development must holistically vision for people and planetary well-being.
Emerging recognition is also of the fact that social, economic, environmental and governance systems cannot be treated in isolation. For the systems to be concurrently aligned in the development paradigm,
the first step is to develop a meta-metric framework that identifies indicators and their respective roles in the development processes. A clear comprehensive metric system that not just focuses on economic indicators but includes social, environmental and governance systems is a pre-requisite.
Cities are the engines of growth and indicators of progress. Besides, they have widespread implications on environment and human society. There is large scale incidence of urban
poverty and slums in cities of developing countries. This has resulted in mismatch between infrastructure, resources and population, leading to degraded and unsustainable urban environments. The unprecedented urban growth is also referred as pseudo-urbanization for the reason that this growth is exceptionally unbalanced. The footprints of urbanization, concretization and land use conversion are visible in the form of urban heat island (UHI) formation that poses threat to human health and wellbeing. The study addresses above issues in national capital – Delhi.
Universal Access to Energy, after a troubled path that started with the identification of the Missing Millennium Development Goal during the Rio+20 Conference and the launch of the Sustainable Energy For All initiative (SE4ALL) by the UN, will finally be included among the new Goals for sustainable development, expected in September 2015.
Energy is a key condition to guarantee access to clean water, sanitation, schooling and business in developing countries, and represents a key factor for growth and development.
Currently, about 1.3 billion people have no access to electricity, some 18% of the world population, geographically concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-East Asia, and to a lesser extent in East Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. The worst conditions are observable in Sub – Saharan Africa, where only 290 out of 915 million people have access to electricity and the total number without access is rising (IEA 2014).
At the same time, more than 2.6 billion people – 38% of the world population – rely on traditional cooking methods based on the use of biomass which generates negative impacts on social and health households’ conditions: the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels and more than 50% of premature deaths among children under 5 are due to pneumonia caused by particulate matter inhaled from household air pollution (WHO 2012).
El debate sobre el desarrollo ha cobrado nueva vigencia y significados en América Latina, impulsado por un momento histórico caracterizado por un buen desempeño de las economías de la región (aunque actualmente con signos de ralentización) y un mayor protagonismo de la misma en un mundo de configuración multipolar; a la vez que los países centrales tienen dificultades para continuar siendo referentes del modo de desarrollo occidental, producto de la crisis económica, social e institucional que enfrentan.
Children are the basis for all dimensions of sustainable development. They have a right to thrive, develop to their full potential, and live in a sustainable world. As such, children should be at the center of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Many argue that sustainable development challenges are integrated. Poverty reduction, health, education, agriculture and energy, gender equality and social inclusion, and development within planetary boundaries must be tackled together, and an inter-generational vision of societal development must underlie the goals in these areas. Without this vision, there will be no capacity for nations to bring about sustainable development.
Human futures are urban futures. During the last decade, the number of people living in cities exceeded the number living in rural areas for the first time in human history (Ash et al 2008). For the foreseeable future, most human lives will be urban lives. Yet, if anything, these figures underestimate the influence of the global urban transition on humanity and the planet. While urban areas occupy just 3% of land surface, they are responsible for perhaps three-quarters of carbon emissions and natural resource utilization (UNEP 2012b).
Accessing water for productive agricultural use remains a challenge for millions of poor smallholder farmers, who constitute the majority of producers in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). In 2006, 225 million hectares of land was cultivated in sSA. However, the total area equipped for irrigation was 7.2 million hectares, only 3.2% of the total cultivated area.
Hunger, malnutrition and poverty still persist, particularly in rural areas, despite recent growth in agricultural GDP. Improving access to water, while removing economic and institutional constraints, could enable millions of smallholder farmers to adopt irrigation and successfully grow their way out of poverty. At the same time, this action will reduce hunger and malnutrition.
Facilitating productivity gains by improving farmers’ access to water will help governments and international agencies to achieve many of the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There are four interrelated measures that will be of particular use. These are: increasing investment in sustainable water infrastructure (from small scale to large scale) and technologies to augment water supply; guaranteeing water and land rights for poor smallholder farmers, including women and young people; including smallholder farmers in viable value chains and improving their access to adequate financial and extension services and markets; and increasing water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. These measures are essential if sSA governments are to attain the SDGs of ending poverty and hunger, and achieving food security and improved nutrition by 2030.
The synthesis report of the Secretary-General on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda states that “innovation and investment in sustainable and resilient infrastructure, cities and settlements, industrialization, small and medium-sized enterprises, energy and technology can both generate employment and remedy negative environmental trends” (§ 73). The reform of Tanzania’s science, technology, and innovation (STI) system that got underway in 2008 under UNESCO leadership places this country in an excellent position to strengthen the energy and technology system as part of the post-2015 sustainable development agenda.
El derecho a la vivienda es universal y se encuentra plasmado en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos de 1948, en su artículo 25.1: "Toda persona tiene derecho a un nivel de vida adecuado que le asegure, así como a su familia, la salud y el bienestar, y en especial la alimentación, el vestido, la vivienda, la asistencia médica y los servicios sociales necesarios; tiene asimismo derecho a los seguros en caso de desempleo, enfermedad, invalidez, viudez, vejez u otros casos de pérdida de sus medios de subsistencia por circunstancias independientes de su voluntad". En 2000, en la Cumbre del Milenio de Naciones Unidas se asumió el alcanzar los 8 objetivos del milenio, uno de ellos es la Meta 11 (7.D) que remite hacia la concepción de una vivienda digna: Se espera que en 2020 se hayan mejorado las condiciones de vida de al menos 100 millones de habitantes de asentamientos precarios.
There is increasingly robust scientific evidence to show that pastoralism — extensive livestock production in the rangelands — is one of the most sustainable food systems on the planet. Pastoralism is practiced by between 200 and 500 million people worldwide, encompassing nomadic communities, transhumant herders, agropastoralists and ranchers, many of whom are facing similar challenges in both developed and developing countries.
Pastoral livelihoods, especially in Africa, are portrayed as unproductive and environmentally destructive, leading policy makers and local authorities to inadvertently or sometimes deliberately undermine elements of pastoralism that are known to be vital for sustainability and resilience: for example herd mobility, communal resource management, and adapted local breeds. . Progress in pastoral areas generally falls behind that of other communities, creating poverty and vulnerability that undermine the sustainability of the system. More than two decades of research has provided evidence that pastoralism is economically rational and viable, and is a vital tool for poverty alleviation, and large-scale conservation and ecosystem management. This paper summarizes recent research and scientific analysis to highlight three overlooked facts, three widespread myths, four emerging issues, and a suite of options for a new development paradigm for sustainable pastoralism.
This article highlights three key areas in which efforts to reduce the underlying causes of vulnerability and drivers of risk to environmental hazards need to be improved in order to create more inclusive, equitable and sustainable development: 1) the role of context and culture in creating risk, 2) the need to better link disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change adaptation (adaptation) and development, and 3) the enabling of transformative change.
Sustainability and resilience are considered the base for reaching a balanced functioning of socio-ecological systems, facing internal conditions and external shocks. However, there is no agreement on how to get a good measure of both concepts to allow for managing local production systems in that sense. An interdisciplinary research group from seven universities in the Centre-West of Argentina, have developed an analytic-methodological proposal to
assess sustainability of local production systems, based on the concept of resilience of socio-ecological systems (RA, 2010). The result of its two-year research, a methodology for assessing sustainability of production systems is presented in this brief. The possibility for applying this methodology rests on a collaborative process between science and policy to improve resilience, and therefore sustainability of local production systems.