Affordable Housing (AH) is deemed affordable depending on family’s income and particular country’s housing status. AH can address all three dimensions of sustainability and it can influence 13 goals set in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) out of 17 goals directly and indirectly (United Nations, 2014). SDGs are designed as action-oriented goal in 2012 to realize 8 Millennium Development Goals set in the year back in 2000. It is envisaged that AH would result in financial and social inclusion of Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG). AH can offer them an opportunity to prosper economically and to enjoy basic urban services (Sen, 1998). It will address the Goal 11 of SDGs i.e. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
At the international level, financial markets affect global investments of the different countries. Meanwhile, global investments impact the imports, exports, global employment, labour and demand for products and services worldwide. According to the International Monetary Fund Report (2011), the global market has been
vulnerable to the risks caused by certain financial, economic and political conditions. ‘Markets may lose patience and become disorderly if political developments derail momentum on fiscal consolidation and financial repair and reform’ (IMF, 2011).
On the other hand, the focus now of the individuals in the global society has been on how to have a higher financial capital. Income diversification is one of the strategies that can help to achieve this end (Kasem,2007). In particular, this would be through diversifying on-farm and off-farm activities especially in the rural
areas. In addition, according to the study of DeMurger (2010), the factors that affected the income diversification of households in northern China included education, migration, household position asset position and working resources, labor force and availability of local credit institutions. Moreover, income diversification also depends on one’s location, practices and the demand for labor. However, the farmers and indigenous peoples who are living in rural areas of
the different countries have been continually struggling to diversify their sources of income without losing their lands. These same situations were evident in the findings of Lopez and Sierra (2011) about the indigenous Jivaroan cultivation systems of Western Amazonia and in the study of Himley (2009) about conservation, interventions and struggles of rural Andean communities to assert territorial authority and to consolidate their livelihoods’ where social capital also plays an important role (Himley, 2009).
La résilience apparait comme un concept innovant de développement, dans le sillage des vulnérabilités dimensionnelles (environnementale, économique, sociale) et la lutte contre la pauvreté et la faim. Sa résonance est particulière dans le contexte actuel de mondialisation, où les chocs liés à la brutalité des crises financières et aux catastrophes naturelles, ne laissent plus indifférent. Le dernier rapport sur le développement humain (PNUD, 2014) questionne la pérennisation du progrès humain en lien avec la réduction des vulnérabilités et le renforcement de la résilience. Les capabilités (Sen, 1992, 1999) constituant aussi une réponse aux vulnérabilités, comment s’articulent-elles à la résilience, et selon quelle stratégie de politiques publiques pour un développement humainement durable?
Despite more than 20-year experience of the sustainability indicators at the time is not developed a generally accepted standardized evaluation system, that could on the unified basis characterize the stability of countries and contribute to a global sustainability policy.
The existing systems of sustainability assessment include about 140 private indicators. Their calculation is based on extensive source material. They are generally sufficiently representative and objective, but the calculation is possible only for a limited number of countries where the system of collecting and maintaining of statistical data on various aspects of life (economic, social, environmental) exists.
However, when accessing the website of the UN Department of Statistics revealed that a number of countries with information “older” then 2006; sets of indicators of different countries vary considerably. The result is inability of cross-country analysis and trends identification. Creates complexity dimension of an array of hundreds of indicators (difficult to comply with the requirements of operability
and decomposability); hence there are mistakes in their interpretation.
Alternatively, as a basic tool to assess the sustainability of the countries developed Environmental Performance Index (EPI). It is calculated by Yale University (USA), according to world statistics, since 2000. It is based on two main groups of estimates (partial indicators) – environmental health and vitality of ecosystems (Environmental…, 2014). On the basis of the dynamics of the indicator groups for countries identified trends and track the transition of countries in categories of environmental health and vitality of ecosystems.
This evaluation system fully characterizes the dynamics of development. However, the analysis of more than 10-year-old use of EPI revealed the following main problem points and proposed solutions for improvement.
Cities are the engines of growth and indicators of progress. Besides, they have widespread implications on environment and human society. There is large scale incidence of urban
poverty and slums in cities of developing countries. This has resulted in mismatch between infrastructure, resources and population, leading to degraded and unsustainable urban environments. The unprecedented urban growth is also referred as pseudo-urbanization for the reason that this growth is exceptionally unbalanced. The footprints of urbanization, concretization and land use conversion are visible in the form of urban heat island (UHI) formation that poses threat to human health and wellbeing. The study addresses above issues in national capital – Delhi.
El debate sobre el desarrollo ha cobrado nueva vigencia y significados en América Latina, impulsado por un momento histórico caracterizado por un buen desempeño de las economías de la región (aunque actualmente con signos de ralentización) y un mayor protagonismo de la misma en un mundo de configuración multipolar; a la vez que los países centrales tienen dificultades para continuar siendo referentes del modo de desarrollo occidental, producto de la crisis económica, social e institucional que enfrentan.
Children are the basis for all dimensions of sustainable development. They have a right to thrive, develop to their full potential, and live in a sustainable world. As such, children should be at the center of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Many argue that sustainable development challenges are integrated. Poverty reduction, health, education, agriculture and energy, gender equality and social inclusion, and development within planetary boundaries must be tackled together, and an inter-generational vision of societal development must underlie the goals in these areas. Without this vision, there will be no capacity for nations to bring about sustainable development.
Providing everyone with access to water is vital to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on health, livelihoods and economic growth. Providing women and the poor (lowincome earners and those who are landless) with access to water is especially important in rural and urban fringe areas. A series of far-reaching strategic solutions and policies need to promote social inclusion to achieve the SDGs, including to:
• Train and build the capacity of women and marginalized socio-economic groups so that they can have more active leadership roles in water management systems, at household and community levels.
• Train policy makers, planners and those in water organizations to actively consider women and poor farmers’ water needs.
• Develop specific technologies and inclusive institutions and policies so women and poor farmers can participate in water use and management systems in the context of prevailing gender norms and local realities.
• Improve women’s access and rights to water, through informal channels and legal mechanisms.
Decoupling of resources use from economic growth is one of the central challenges of pathways towards a sustainable future. In this context, industrial symbiosis holds huge potential. While increased resource efficiency is one of its central aspects, industrial symbiosis links to broader agendas in the fields of green economy, innovation, material and energy security, climate change, as well as local, regional and national welfare.
El derecho a la vivienda es universal y se encuentra plasmado en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos de 1948, en su artículo 25.1: "Toda persona tiene derecho a un nivel de vida adecuado que le asegure, así como a su familia, la salud y el bienestar, y en especial la alimentación, el vestido, la vivienda, la asistencia médica y los servicios sociales necesarios; tiene asimismo derecho a los seguros en caso de desempleo, enfermedad, invalidez, viudez, vejez u otros casos de pérdida de sus medios de subsistencia por circunstancias independientes de su voluntad". En 2000, en la Cumbre del Milenio de Naciones Unidas se asumió el alcanzar los 8 objetivos del milenio, uno de ellos es la Meta 11 (7.D) que remite hacia la concepción de una vivienda digna: Se espera que en 2020 se hayan mejorado las condiciones de vida de al menos 100 millones de habitantes de asentamientos precarios.
Concepts of local civic participation, community capacity building and social capital formation are widely asserted to be of importance for democratic good governance, economic development and sustainable resource management (Bebbington et al. 2004; Woolcock 2010; Mansuri and Rao 2013). This brief summarizes the results of comparative investigations into participation and social capital formation through village-level field studies across several of Indonesia’s culturally and ecologically diverse regions.
The research project studied the processes and outcomes of community development and conservation programs aimed at improving participation and building capacity in villages with different social and ecological assets. It assessed the extent to which these approaches have contributed to improved governance and more sustainably managed environments over the decade and a half since Indonesia began its dramatic program of democratisation and decentralisation. This research applied a mixed methods approach in 15 villages across 9 Indonesian provinces where community-based development and conservation interventions had been introduced. It involved detailed random sample surveys, interviews with key figures in local government and non-government organizations, and participant observation. The results are of comparative policy significance beyond the Indonesian case for improved understanding of the practical relationships between capacity building strategies and the community development and conservation goals associated with applications of social capital, participation, and empowerment concepts.
“Sustainable Development and open trade go hand in hand and the multilateral trading system helps to create the enabling environment for countries to realise the sustainable development and green economy vision. (World Trade Organisation 2011). Sustainable Development manifests itself into
economic, social and environmental issues to be solved by the countries by the following international environmental regulations. Trade and Sustainable Development is interlinked. Rio+20 (2012) conference seeks to promote it through open and equitable rulebased multilateral trading system which is nondiscriminatory and predictable and benefits all countries in the pursuit of Sustainable Development.
The U.N. (UNCTAD Report, 2013) outlines the urgent necessity for hyper-local, self-reliant village designs to prepare for 2+ billion additional people joining the planet by 2050.
The RegenVillages initiative is a model blueprint for industry, government, and academic action. The partnership seeks to accelerate the proliferation of affordable, integrated village designs that power and feed self-reliant communities thus tackling the challenges expected from climate change and overpopulation from an economic, social and environmental perspective.
“Regen” is a short form of “Regenerative” that defines sustainability through the lens and metrics of strong, self-reliant communities. This concept for modern village design is aspirational, heralding a refreshing and revitalized perspective on the development of “landed strata” by integrating proven technologies in innovative
ways, such as built-environment energy positive dwellings, renewable power and micro-grid distribution, living machines for water and waste management, and organic aquaponic food production at scale, all combined in a total community management system.
This article highlights three key areas in which efforts to reduce the underlying causes of vulnerability and drivers of risk to environmental hazards need to be improved in order to create more inclusive, equitable and sustainable development: 1) the role of context and culture in creating risk, 2) the need to better link disaster risk reduction (DRR), climate change adaptation (adaptation) and development, and 3) the enabling of transformative change.
Sustainability and resilience are considered the base for reaching a balanced functioning of socio-ecological systems, facing internal conditions and external shocks. However, there is no agreement on how to get a good measure of both concepts to allow for managing local production systems in that sense. An interdisciplinary research group from seven universities in the Centre-West of Argentina, have developed an analytic-methodological proposal to
assess sustainability of local production systems, based on the concept of resilience of socio-ecological systems (RA, 2010). The result of its two-year research, a methodology for assessing sustainability of production systems is presented in this brief. The possibility for applying this methodology rests on a collaborative process between science and policy to improve resilience, and therefore sustainability of local production systems.
It is widely recognised that the reduction of child poverty is crucial for sustainable economic and social development (UNICEF 2014), and the Open Working Group (OWG) on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognises that growth and development should particularly benefit children (§4). Child-specific
measurement is imperative for addressing poverty and reducing vulnerability (Ben-Arieh 2000) and for the first time newly proposed global goals for poverty reduction make specific reference to children.
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1, Target 2 reads: “By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions” (OWG 2014; 7). This explicit mention of children constitutes an important step forward but also gives rise to questions about the use of indicators and measurement of child poverty. This science digest provides an overview of the academic debate
regarding the complexity of child poverty and the importance of comprehensive child-focused poverty measurement in supporting adequate and effective poverty reduction policies.
Spatial sustainability is a very interesting subject for research, particularly in view of its enormous potential public policy applicability. The concept of accessibility has an interesting dual dimension, being both geographical and social. The measurement of physical or geographical accessibility contributes to the knowledge of whether public services are being provided adequately – equitably – to serve the whole population of the study territory irrespective of where people live.
There are many different indicators of accessibility, mostly based on distance and user satisfaction. The main difficulty resides in the measurement process itself. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) has helped to make this task easier and,consequently, to expand the possibilities of present and future analyses.
Natural science disciplines ranging from climatology to oceanography and from geophysics to biogeography have been involved in research on climate change and its implications for sustainability, but over the past few decades anthropologists have examined these same issues from a rather different perspective. Even earlier, physical anthropologists and archaeologists had begun examining the role of primarily natural climate change in the bio-cultural evolution of humans in Africa and their subsequent dispersal to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. Climate change appears to have played a prominent role in the formation of various civilizations, the occupation or abandonment of different regions over time, and the collapse of major civilizations and indigenous societies.
This brief focuses on the recent work of sociocultural anthropologists on anthropogenic climate change, a phenomenon that began with the Industrial Revolution and is characterized by heavy reliance on fossil fuels and emphasis on
persistently enduring economic growth. Particularly after World War II, the global economy began to promote and rely on relentless consumption of manufactured products. This economic model has diffused from the first industrialized countries to the developing world through trade, foreign investment, aid and development programs, and its sustainability implications are not confined to anthropogenic climate change….
El presente artículo explica algunos de los aspectos más importantes, declaraciones y programas por país que permiten explicar la evolución e importancia global de las políticas que reconocen la integración de las políticas de protección social con las de desarrollo sostenible y lucha contra el cambio climático…
This brief examines some of the most important aspects, statements and country programs that explain the evolution and global importance of policies that integrate social protection policies with those oriented to promote sustainable development and responses to climate change….
Currently, every seventh person worldwide lives in an informal urban settlement, summing up to 850 million people globally. In some megacities of low- and middle-income countries almost 80% of the total population lives in slums. Fast urbanization is observed worldwide but in developing countries it is expected adding up to 1.5 billion in 2025 people living in slums. Three-quarter of the world’s population is expected to live in an urban environment by 2050, whereby urbanization in developing countries will be the most significant. These facts illustrate that immediate action is required and this issue cannot be neglected, since slums will not be resolved but in fact increasing over the coming years. Based on the UN Millennium Goal Number 7 (directly 7D) on the improvement of slum dweller living conditions, several UN post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are also trying to address this complex issue.