United Nations (2014) predicts that the share of global urban population will increase from 50 % today to approximately 70 % by 2050. Alongside with this rapid urbanization of the human society, it is estimated that, by 2030, cities will physically expand by 1.2 million km2, which is almost same size as the Republic of South Africa (Seto, Güneralp, and Hutyra 2012). While this outstanding growth of cities can contribute to more economic growth as well as mitigation of
global warming by promoting law-carbon, sustainable, and climate-resilient city development (Grimm et al 2008; Rosenzweig et al 2010; Hodson & Marvin 2010; Ho et al 2013), rapid physical expansions of cities at the expense of vegetation will not only decrease CO2 absorption capacity of the planet but also vitiate global ecosystem services (Seto, Güneralp, and Hutyra 2012).
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