This brief summarises some recent critiques of our responses to climate change and highlights the ways in which the global poor, who will suffer the most from climate change, are being further marginalised as a result of mitigation and adaptation responses, through hierarchies and social stratification at all scales. Understanding and responding to these
resulting “insults and injuries of intervention” (Marino & Ribot, 2012, p. 327) is an important new component in achieving sustainable development in a climate-changed world, along
with the ongoing need to understand root causes of vulnerability (Ribot, 2014), double exposure to climate change and globalisation (O’Brien & Leichenko, 2000) and the social basis
of disasters (Sen, 1981; Wisner et al, 2004).
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本文基于一般均衡理论，结合中国经济和能源市场特征，利用含有内生技术进步的 CGE（Computable General Equilibrium）模型分析了碳交易机制下的三种减排情境对技术进步的影响以及带来的 CO2减排效应，以期为中国减排政策的制定提供 科学的信息支持和决策参考。结果表明低减排目标、中等减排目标、高减排目标约束下：（1）技术进步相对于基准情景的变化率逐 年上升，减排初期为 0.13%、0.40%和 0.73%，到 2030 年达到 0.47%、1.60%和 3.35%；（2）碳价波动幅度较小，平均水平为 57.86 元 /吨、203.17 元/吨和 452.87 元/吨；（3）碳强度相对于 2005 年水平逐年下降，减排初期为 30.38%、35.34%和 42.38%，到 2030 年达 到 58.37%、61.38%和 65.66%；（4）减排量也呈现逐年上升趋势，初期为 0.74 亿吨、2.46 亿吨和 4.93 亿吨，到 2030 年到达 1.08 亿 吨、3.62 亿吨和 7.23 亿吨；（5）减排初期 GDP 相对于基准情景都出现不同程度的下降，分别为 0.02%，0.12% 和 0.37%，后期逐渐 转为正向，到 2030 年高于基准情景 0.03%，0.05% 和 0.02%；（6）研发投入相对于基准情景平均每年分别增加约 0.5%， 2% 和 3.5%。碳交易能够有效激励技术进步，实现二氧化碳减排，但现阶段对于经济增长有负面效应。因此，目前不适宜建立全国性的碳市 场。只有在科技水平达到一定程度，并且经济形势趋于稳定之后，碳交易才能实现减排和增长的“双重红利”。
An opportunity exists to combine three sustainable or waste materials, and to deploy the resulting product in such a way that it: increases sustainable fish stocks; reduces surface ocean acidity; sequesters carbon; and cools the globe profitably, effectively, quickly, and by means closely matching how Nature has done this safely for millennia.
Sustainable Development can come from solutions that replace fossil fuel consumption with sustainable resources, or from solutions that address environmental threats. Some solutions do both. One such prospective solution combines natural and waste materials to form ultra-slow release, buoyant flakes that provide the essential nutrients necessary to make the nutrient deficient half of ocean surface waters productive. In food production terms, this is nearly the equivalent of having another Earth, such is the productivity of nutrient-rich waters. At the same time, the flakes deliver four other key benefits: the dark blue of the less-productive high seas is replaced with the milky-green hue of productive seas, thereby cooling the world by reflecting more solar energy back into space; chemicals released by the additional microscopic phytoplankton contribute to marine cloud brightening, thereby also increasing global albedo (reflectiveness) fairly
evenly and hence reducing diverse regional effects; the additional photosynthetic phytoplankton offset ocean acidification by converting the carbon dioxide dissolved in the ocean surface waters (carbonic acid) into neutral biomass and oxygen; and part of this biomass sequesters carbon in the cold ocean depths and sediments when it sinks, leaving the surface waters able to take up more atmospheric carbon dioxide.
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