Tag Archives: water

Hydrological modelling and their biases: constraints in policy making and sustainable water resources development under changing climate in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas

The Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayan (HKH) mountain ranges and highlands of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) contain large mountain glaciers of the world, and nourishes large Asian river basins with significant amounts of snow and glacier melt, thus are susceptible to global warming and climate change. Therefore, precise and accurate policy making and sustainable water resource development are vital to cater for needs of food and power generation of billions of people. Precise and accurate policy making and sustainable water resources development are dependent on the accuracy of hydrological modelling and its future forecasts, though contain inevitable significant uncertainties. Current study discusses
hydrological modelling uncertainties, biases and their causes in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which is originating from the HKH-TP region.

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Integrated resource policies for energy and water resources, with case studies of China and the UK

Because of economic development, increasing global population, and increased levels of affluence, future global demands for food, energy and water resources are expected to increase by 50%, 50% and
30% respectively (Beddington, 2009). However, with the world’s food, energy and water resources already experiencing shortfalls and stresses (Bizikova et al., 2013), there is an urgent need for nexus-oriented approaches to address unsustainable patterns of growth. The importance of these three resources has been highlighted in many publications, and they have been included in the Sustainable Development goals, which are to ensure the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy, and the achievement of food security and sustainable agriculture.

Water, energy and land resources are all interconnected and should not be viewed in isolation. Agriculture and industry (including energy) account for 70% and 22% of global water withdrawals respectively (Howells et al., 2013); 7% of all energy is used for water supply; and 4% of energy is directly used in agriculture (Bazilian et al., 2011). The need for integrated resource planning for
energy, water and land is becoming increasingly recognised by international institutions, national governments and businesses (Hoff, 2001). A policy that affects one resource can result in unexpected
consequences for another. There is a need for policy makers, institutions and businesses to understand better the connections between these resources and to integrate them in future plans for a sustainable future. To be able to achieve this, the UN and other institutions should promote holistic analysis of the interconnections between resources.

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Accessing and putting water to productive use in sub-Saharan Africa

Accessing water for productive agricultural use remains a challenge for millions of poor smallholder farmers, who constitute the majority of producers in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). In 2006, 225 million hectares of land was cultivated in sSA. However, the total area equipped for irrigation was 7.2 million hectares, only 3.2% of the total cultivated area.

Hunger, malnutrition and poverty still persist, particularly in rural areas, despite recent growth in agricultural GDP. Improving access to water, while removing economic and institutional constraints, could enable millions of smallholder farmers to adopt irrigation and successfully grow their way out of poverty. At the same time, this action will reduce hunger and malnutrition.

Facilitating productivity gains by improving farmers’ access to water will help governments and international agencies to achieve many of the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There are four interrelated measures that will be of particular use. These are: increasing investment in sustainable water infrastructure (from small scale to large scale) and technologies to augment water supply; guaranteeing water and land rights for poor smallholder farmers, including women and young people; including smallholder farmers in viable value chains and improving their access to adequate financial and extension services and markets; and increasing water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. These measures are essential if sSA governments are to attain the SDGs of ending poverty and hunger, and achieving food security and improved nutrition by 2030.

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Improving water quality is an opportunity to avert a global crisis

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to water quality must be ambitious and comprehensive if they are to prevent a global water quality crisis. This is because the scale of water pollution is immense. Every day, humans generate millions of tons of solid and liquid waste. Much of this waste is discharged untreated to water bodies, severely polluting the water and damaging human health, ecosystems and industries.

A 2014 analysis supported by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) shows that 24 Mha of irrigated croplands lie within urban areas and 130 Mha of irrigated croplands are located within 20 km of urban areas (Thebo et al., 2014). A significant proportion of this farmland is irrigated with diluted wastewater. In and around 75% of all cities in developing countries, water used for irrigation is highly polluted (Raschid-Sally and Jayakody, 2008).

For decades, the fate and impacts of waste and wastewater were poorly considered in the global development agenda spearheaded by the Millennium Development Goals. However, it is now widely recognized that water quality targets need to go beyond access to sanitation facilities. They must address the fate of wastewaters and their impacts on the environment and human health, and be relevant for developed and developing countries alike.

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Including women and the poor in water management systems

Providing everyone with access to water is vital to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on health, livelihoods and economic growth. Providing women and the poor (lowincome earners and those who are landless) with access to water is especially important in rural and urban fringe areas. A series of far-reaching strategic solutions and policies need to promote social inclusion to achieve the SDGs, including to:

• Train and build the capacity of women and marginalized socio-economic groups so that they can have more active leadership roles in water management systems, at household and community levels.
• Train policy makers, planners and those in water organizations to actively consider women and poor farmers’ water needs.
• Develop specific technologies and inclusive institutions and policies so women and poor farmers can participate in water use and management systems in the context of prevailing gender norms and local realities.
• Improve women’s access and rights to water, through informal channels and legal mechanisms.

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Managing water variability, from floods to droughts

If people are prepared, they are much more resilient to natural disasters. Knowing the global hotspots of flood and drought risk, and quantifying the level of risk for individual locations, can ensure local inhabitants are as well equipped as possible to handle the worst climate-related events that come their way.

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Water governance: context is crucial

Humanity faces daunting water management challenges, as demand for water hits limits of supply and competition increases between agriculture, industry, cities and the environment. Climate change, too, will affect the availability of water. Worldwide, the focus of conversations about water governance has moved from resource development to resource management. To be effective, water governance needs to directly identify and respond to local problems and needs. It needs to take into account the local institutions, knowledge, socioeconomic, political and environmental conditions.

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贵州省城镇化进程中水资源保障与供水能力问题研究 (Urbanization Process in Guizhou Province and the analysis of supply capacity of water security issues)

This brief is submitted in the Chinese language. The full brief could be accessed through the below link. Your comments could be in either English or Chinese.

突破制约贵州省发展的工程性缺水战略瓶颈,保障城镇化带动战略和工业强省战略实施,支撑“后发赶超、跨越发 展、同步小康建设”用水需求的重大战略举措。本文从保障城镇化健康发展要求出发,以贵州省统计年鉴、贵州省水资源公报 (2000~2012)、中国城乡建设统计年鉴等相关资料为基础,结合国家有关城镇化、资源环境政策,采用定性与定量分析、目标分析 与需求预测分析的方法。在贵州水资源利用与城镇供水建设现状的基础上,针对水资源供应不适应城镇化发展的要求,推进新型城镇 化面临严峻挑战;贵州城市供水能力建设滞后于人口城市化,用水供需矛盾问题突出;现有水厂设计供水能力高,但实际供水能力低 等主要问题。提出了强力推进水利建设三大会战,全面提升水资源供给保障能力;加强水源建设,提高城镇供水水质应急能力;加强 水质检测与监测体系建设,提高供水安全保障能力;进一步提高用水效率加快节水型城镇建设等建议。


基于 TIMES-Water 模型的能源与水资源分析(TIMES-Water model for analysis of energy and water resources)

This brief is submitted in the Chinese language. The full brief could be accessed through the below link. Your comments could be in either English or Chinese.

摘 要
能源与水资源密切相关。能源的开发和利用受到水资源的各种制约。本文基于 TIMES-Water 模型,耦合了能源系统与 水资源系统,评估了中国未来水资源需求,并分析了征收水费对电力部门的影响。结果表明:(1)中国未来的水资源需求将会逐年 增加,并在 2030 年左右达峰,峰值为 6880 亿立方米;(2)征收水费会降低电力部门用水,尤其是 2020 年以后的火电和核电的用水 量;(3)征收水费会影响发电结构,降低高耗水发电技术(火电与核电)的份额。


基于水资源生态足迹模型的山西省水资源可持续性研究 (Analysis of water sustainability issue on the basis of Water Ecological Footprint Model)

This brief is submitted in the Chinese language. The full brief could be accessed through the below link. Your comments could be in either English or Chinese.

摘 要
基于水资源生态足迹模型,结合水资源生态赤字、水资源生态压力指数、水资源利用效率指数,分析了山西省 2003~2012年水资源生态足迹变化趋势和水资源可持续利用状况。结果表明,(1)2003~2012年山西省人均水资源生态足迹 整体上呈缓慢增长趋势,人均水资源生态承载力总体上变化幅度比较平缓,导致人均水资源生态赤字的变化趋势与人均水资 源生态足迹的变化趋势基本相同;(2)2003~2012年山西省水资源开发利用效率虽逐年提高,但水资源的开发利用处于不安 全状态。


探索生态城镇中生态功能区规划建设的新思路——以国家级生态镇泖港镇水源地生态规划功能区为例  (Exploring new eco-community building approaches in eco-towns: ecological planning in the water-source town of Maogang)

This brief is submitted in the Chinese language. The full brief could be accessed through the below link. Your comments could be in either English or Chinese.

摘 要
随着工业化进入后工业化发展阶段,可持续发展逐渐成为当前社会发展的主题。如何把可持续发展的基本理念和内涵 融入到城镇的建设中,发展新型“生态城镇”,成为当前城镇发展面临的重大课题。在这个背景下,本文以上海市松江区泖港镇水源 地生态规划功能区为例,在分析经济、社会和环境现状的基础上,对生态城镇中生态规划功能区的优势因素进行分析,提出适合当地 经济、社会和环境可持续发展的规划方案。这不仅对上海当地的发展具有重要的实践意义,而且对其它地区的生态治理与城镇化同步 发展具有很好的指导借鉴意义。


新疆天池水体环境质量变化原因分析及治理措施 (The water quality in the Heavenly Lake ( Tianchi), Xinjiang: causes behind its water quality changes and relevant policy analysis)

This brief is submitted in the Chinese language. The full brief could be accessed through the below link. Your comments could be in either English or Chinese.

摘 要
湖泊的富营养化会造成水体中藻类和水生植物的大量繁殖,从而导致水质恶化,引发一系列生态问题。为研究新疆天 池博格达峰自然保护区水体环境质量现状,对天池和三工河水体水质进行了环境监测,结果显示天池、西小天池和三工河水体已经出 现中度富营养化倾向。根据监测和研究结果,目前天池湖水发生富营养化的主要原因包括过度放牧,外来鱼种大量投放,污水处理设 施欠缺及气候变化的影响。针对天池高海拔流域水体特征,从国内外湖泊富营养化治理的经验措施中进行筛选,我们建议继续施行区 域草场的全面禁牧,加强服务区配套污染物处理设施建设及对内外源污染的控制,并通过实地调研与长期监测,研究适合天池自然环 境条件和要素治理特征的水体综合整治技术,在各方相关单位的合作下,实现湖泊治理的系统化与生态化。


水生态文明建设进展与思考(Assessing water sustainability management)

This brief is submitted in the Chinese language. The full brief could be accessed through the below link. Your comments could be in either English or Chinese.

摘 要
作为生态文明的重要组成部分和基础保障,水生态文明建设的重要性与迫切性日益凸显。目前,我国已从流域、省级 和城市三个层面分别开展了水生态文明建设工作,其中不乏共性。本文主要以城市层面为重点,通过系统地梳理总结,从制度建设、 管理体制建设、工程建设、文化建设及保障能力建设五个方面对水生态文明的建设进展进行了阐述,同时针对建设过程中存在的主要 问题给出了相关建议,以明晰建设的重点方向,并为今后相关工作的开展及进一步改进提供借鉴。